Hesperian encourages others to copy, reproduce, or adapt to meet local needs any
or all parts of this book, including the illustrations, provided that the parts reproduced
are distributed free or at cost – not for profit.
Any organization or person who wishes to copy, reproduce, or adapt any or all parts
of this book for commercial purposes must obtain permission from Hesperian.
Before beginning any translation or adaptation of this book or its contents, please
contact Hesperian for suggestions, updated information, and to avoid duplication of
efforts. Please send us a copy of any materials in which text or illustrations from this
book have been used.
Copyright © 2012, 2006, 1983 by Hesperian. All rights reserved.
Library of Congress
Catalog card No. 82-84067
Where there is no dentist.
Berkeley, CA: Hesperian Foundation
First edition, November 1983
15th printing (updated), July 2012
Printed in the USA on paper from responsible sources by Quad/Graphics.
Hesperian Health Guides
1919 Addison St., #304
Berkeley, California 94704