384 Cancer and Growths
➤ The signs of lung
cancer are the same
as tuberculosis (TB).
Seek medical help if
you have these signs.
Cancer of the liver
can be caused by
hepatitis B and C.
➤ Try to make
hepatitis B vaccine
available in your
hepatitis B, 277
Lung cancer is a growing problem that is often caused by
smoking tobacco. It has been more common in men because
they smoked more than women. But because women now
smoke as much as men, they are starting to get more lung cancer.
In some countries, more women now die from lung cancer than
from any other kind of cancer. And in many places, girls
are starting to smoke as early and as much as boys. As
more girls and women smoke, even more women will
end up getting lung cancer.
Lung cancer does not usually affect people until they
are over 40 years old. If a woman stops smoking, her risk
of getting lung cancer becomes much less. The signs
(coughing up blood, losing weight, difficulty breathing)
appear when the cancer is advanced and difficult to
cure. Surgery to remove part of the lung, medicines,
and radiation therapy are all used to treat lung cancer.
Mouth and throat cancer
Mouth and throat cancer can be caused by smoking and
chewing tobacco. If you smoke or chew tobacco, and have sores
in your mouth that do not heal, get medical advice.
Cancer of the liver
Some people who become infected with hepatitis B or C
develop cancer of the liver years later. Signs of liver cancer are
a swollen abdomen and general weakness. See a health
worker if you think you may have liver cancer.
Hepatitis B and C can be prevented by having safer
sex and not sharing needles. Also, there is a vaccine for
hepatitis B. Babies can be vaccinated at birth. Adults can
be vaccinated at any time.
Cancer of the stomach
Cancer of the stomach usually occurs in women and men over
age 40. Usually there are no signs until it is advanced. Surgery,
radiation, and strong medicine are the only treatments and may
not be successful.
Sometimes, however, cancer of the stomach is caused by a
bacteria (H. pylori). This bacteria can be treated with certain
medicines, and the treatment can prevent cancer before it starts.
The signs are similar to getting indigestion or heartburn. If you
get these signs often, or for a long time, talk with a health worker
about getting tested and treated.
Where Women Have No Doctor 2012