Pride and Prejudice
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|Pride and Prejudice|
|Genre(s)||Novel of manners, Satire|
|Publisher||T. Egerton, Whitehall|
|Publication date||28 January 1813|
|Media type||Print ( Hardback, 3 volumes)|
Pride and Prejudice is a novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1813. The story follows the main character Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England. Elizabeth is the second of five daughters of a country gentleman, living near the fictional town of Meryton in Hertfordshire, near London.
Though the story is set at the turn of the 19th century, it retains a fascination for modern readers, continuing near the top of lists of 'most loved books' such as The Big Read. It has become one of the most popular novels in English literature, and receives considerable attention from literary scholars. Modern interest in the book has resulted in a number of dramatic adaptations and an abundance of novels and stories imitating Austen's memorable characters or themes. To date, the book has sold some 20 million copies worldwide.
The plot of the novel is driven by a particular situation of the Bennet family: if Mr Bennet dies soon, his wife and five daughters will be without home or income, as the Longbourn estate is entailed to one of Mr Bennet's collateral relatives—male only in this case—by the legal terms of fee tail. Mrs Bennet worries about this predicament, and wishes to find husbands for her daughters quickly. The father doesn't seem to be worried at all.
The narrative opens with Mr Bingley, a wealthy young gentleman and a very eligible bachelor, renting a country estate near the Bennets called Netherfield. He arrives accompanied by his fashionable sisters and his good friend, Mr Darcy. Attending the local assembly (dance) Bingley is well received in the community, while Darcy begins his acquaintance with smug condescension and 'proud' distaste for all the country locals. After Darcy's haughty rejection of her at the dance, Elizabeth resolves to match his coldness and pride, his prejudice against country people, with her own prideful anger—in biting wit and sometimes sarcastic remarks—directed towards him. (Elizabeth's disposition leads her into prejudices regarding Darcy and others, such that she is unable to 'sketch' their characters accurately.)
Soon, Bingley and Jane begin to grow close. Elizabeth's best friend, Charlotte, advises that Jane should show her affection to Bingley more openly, as he may not realise that she is indeed interested in him. Elizabeth flippantly dismisses the opinion—replying that Jane is shy and modest, and that if Bingley can't see how she feels, he is a simpleton—and she doesn't tell Jane of Charlotte's warning. Later Elizabeth begins a friendship with Mr Wickham, a militia officer who is of long personal acquaintance with Darcy—they grew up together. Wickham tells her he has been seriously mistreated by the proud man; Elizabeth seizes on this news as further reason to dislike Darcy. Ironically, Darcy begins to find himself drawn to Elizabeth, unbeknownst to her.
Mr Collins, the male relative who is to inherit Longbourn, makes an appearance and stays with the Bennets. Recently ordained a clergyman, he is employed as parish rector by the wealthy and patronising Lady Catherine de Bourgh of Kent. Mr Bennet and Elizabeth are amused by his self-important and pedantic behaviour. Though his stated reason for visiting is to reconcile with the Bennets, Collins soon confides to Mrs Bennet that he wishes to find a wife from among the Bennet sisters. He first offers to pursue Jane; however, Mrs Bennet mentions that her eldest daughter is soon likely to be engaged, and redirects his attentions to Elizabeth.
At a ball given by Bingley at Netherfield, Elizabeth intends to deepen her acquaintance with Mr Wickham, who, however, fails to appear. She is asked to dance by Mr Darcy; here she raises Wickham's fate with him, causing their harmonious dance to fall into a 'testy' discussion. The ball proceeds as spectacle: the arriviste Sir William Lucas shocks Darcy, alluding to Jane and Bingley and 'a certain desirable event'; Mr. Collins behaves fatuously; now Mrs Bennet talks loudly and indiscreetly of her expectation of marriage between Jane and Bingley, and, in general, cousin Collins and the Bennet family—save Jane and Elizabeth—combine in a public display of poor manners and upbringing that clearly disgusts Darcy and embarrasses Elizabeth
The next morning, Mr Collins proposes marriage to Elizabeth, who refuses him, much to her mother's distress. Collins handily recovers and, within three days, proposes to Elizabeth's close friend, Charlotte Lucas, who immediately accepts. Once marriage arrangements are settled, Charlotte persuades Elizabeth to come for an extended visit to her new bridal home.
Though appearing at the point of proposing marriage to Jane, Mr Bingley abruptly quits Netherfield and returns to London, leaving the lady confused and upset. Elizabeth is convinced that Darcy and Bingley's sister have conspired to separate Jane and Bingley.
In the spring, Elizabeth joins Charlotte and her cousin in Kent. The parsonage is adjacent to Rosings Park—the grand manor of Lady Catherine de Bourgh, Mr Darcy's aunt—where Elizabeth and her hosts are frequently invited to socialize. After Mr Darcy and his cousin Colonel Fitzwilliam arrive to visit Lady Catherine, Elizabeth renews her project of teasing Darcy—while his admiration for her grows in spite of his intentions otherwise. Now Elizabeth learns from Fitzwilliam that Darcy prides himself on having separated Bingley from Jane; and, with the poorest of timing, Darcy chooses this moment to admit his love for Elizabeth, and he proposes to her. Incensed by his high-handed and insulting manner, she abruptly refuses him. When he asks why—so uncivil her reply—Elizabeth confronts him with his sabotage of Jane and Bingley's budding relationship and with Wickham's account of Darcy's mistreatment of him, among other complaints.
Deeply shaken by Elizabeth's vehemence and accusations, Darcy writes her a letter which reveals the true history between Wickham and himself. Wickham had renounced his legacy—a clergyman's 'living' in Darcy's patronage—for a cash payment; only to return after gambling away the money to again claim the position. After Darcy refused, Wickham attempted to elope with Darcy's fifteen-year-old sister Georgiana, and thereby secure her part of the Darcy family fortune. He was found out and stopped only a day before the intended elopement. Regarding Bingley and Jane, Darcy justifies his interference: he had observed in Jane no reciprocal interest for Bingley; thus he aimed to separate them to protect his friend from heartache.
In the letter Darcy admits his ' repugnance' for the 'total want of propriety' of her (Elizabeth's) family, especially her mother and three younger sisters. After reading the letter, Elizabeth begins to question both her family's behaviour and Wickham's credibility. She also concludes: Wickham is not as trustworthy as his easy manners would indicate; that he had lied to her previously; and that her early impressions of Darcy's character might not have been accurate. Soon, Elizabeth returns home.
Some months later, during a 'northern' tour, Elizabeth and her Aunt and Uncle Gardiner visit Pemberley, Darcy's estate, while he's away. The elderly housekeeper has known Darcy since childhood, and presents a flattering and benevolent impression of his character to Elizabeth and the Gardiners. As they tour the grounds Darcy unexpectedly returns home. Though shocked—as is Elizabeth—he makes an obvious effort to be gracious and welcoming, and treats the Gardiners—whom before he would have dismissed as socially inferior—with remarkable politeness. Later he introduces Elizabeth to his sister, a high compliment to Elizabeth. Elizabeth is surprised and hopeful of a possible new beginning with Darcy.
Elizabeth and Darcy's renewed acquaintance is cut short by news that Lydia, the youngest sister, has run away with Wickham. Initially, the family (wishfully) believe they have eloped, but they soon learn that Wickham has no plans to marry Lydia. Lydia's antics threaten her family—especially the remaining Bennet sisters—with social ruin. Elizabeth and her aunt and uncle hurriedly leave for home; Elizabeth is anguished, and convinced that Darcy will avoid her from now on.
Soon, thanks apparently to Elizabeth's uncle, Lydia and Wickham are found and married. Afterwards, they visit Longbourn; while bragging to Elizabeth, Lydia discloses that Darcy was present at the wedding. Surprised, Elizabeth sends an inquiry to her aunt, from whom she learns that Darcy himself was responsible for both finding the couple and arranging their marriage, at great expense to himself.
Bingley returns to Longbourn and proposes marriage to Jane who immediately accepts. Now Lady Catherine surprisingly visits Longbourn. She sternly tells Elizabeth she has heard rumours of Darcy proposing to her; she came with 'determined resolution' to confront Elizabeth and to demand that she never accept such a proposal because Darcy is supposed to marry her daughter. Elizabeth refuses to bow to Lady Catherine's demands. Furious, 'Lady C' charges off and tells Darcy of Elizabeth's obstinacy—which convinces him that Elizabeth's opinion of him has changed. He now visits Longbourn, and once again proposes marriage. Elizabeth accepts, and the two become engaged.
The novel's final chapters establish the futures of the characters: Elizabeth and Darcy settle at Pemberley, where Mr Bennet visits often; Mrs Bennet remains frivolous and silly—she often visits the new Mrs Bingley and talks of the new Mrs Darcy; Jane and Bingley eventually move to locate near the Darcys in Derbyshire. Elizabeth and Jane teach Kitty better social graces, and Mary learns to mix more with the outside world at Meryton. Lydia and Wickham continue to move often, leaving debts for Jane and Elizabeth to pay. At Pemberley, Elizabeth and Georgiana grow close; Georgiana is surprised by Elizabeth's playful treatment of Darcy, and she grows more comfortable with her brother. Lady Catherine holds out, indignant and abusive, over her nephew's marriage, but eventually Darcy is prevailed upon to reconcile with her sufficiently that she condescends to visit. Elizabeth and Darcy remain close to her Uncle and Aunt Gardiner—the agents of their reconciling and uniting.
- Elizabeth Bennet is the main character and protagonist. The reader sees the unfolding plot and the other characters mostly from her viewpoint. The second of the Bennet daughters at twenty years old, she is intelligent, lively, attractive, and witty, but with a tendency to judge on first impressions and perhaps to be a little selective of the evidence upon which she bases her judgments. As the plot begins, her closest relationships are with her father, her sister Jane, her aunt Mrs Gardiner, and her best friend Charlotte Lucas.
- Mr Fitzwilliam Darcy is the main male character. Twenty-eight years old and unmarried, Darcy is the wealthy owner of the famous family estate of Pemberley in Derbyshire. Handsome, tall, and intelligent, but not convivial, his aloof decorum and moral rectitude are seen by many as an excessive pride and concern for social status. He makes a poor impression on strangers, such as the gentry of Meryton, but is valued by those who know him well.
- Mr Bennet has a wife and five daughters, and seems to have inured himself to his fate. A bookish and intelligent gentleman somewhat withdrawn from society, he dislikes the indecorous behaviours of his wife and three younger daughters; but he offers little beyond mockery by way of correcting them. Rather than guiding these daughters to more sensible understanding, he is instead content to laugh at them. He relates very well with his two elder daughters, Jane and Elizabeth, showing them much more love and respect than his wife and younger daughters.
- Mrs Bennet is the wife of her social superior Mr Bennet, and mother of Elizabeth and her sisters. She is frivolous, excitable, and narrow-minded, and is susceptible to attacks of tremors and palpitations. Her public manners and social climbing are embarrassing to Jane and Elizabeth. Her favourite daughter is the youngest, Lydia.
- Jane Bennet is the eldest Bennet sister. Twenty-two years old when the novel begins, she is considered the most beautiful young lady in the neighbourhood. Her character is contrasted with Elizabeth's as sweeter, shyer, and equally sensible, but not as clever; her most notable trait is a desire to see only the good in others. Jane is closest to Elizabeth, and her character is often contrasted with that of Elizabeth.
- Mary Bennet is the only plain Bennet sister, and rather than join in some of the family activities, she reads, although she is often impatient for display. She works hard for knowledge and accomplishment, but has neither genius nor taste. At the ball at Netherfield, she embarrasses her family by singing badly.
- Catherine "Kitty" Bennet is the fourth Bennet sister, aged seventeen. She is portrayed as a less headstrong but equally silly shadow of Lydia.
- Lydia Bennet is the youngest Bennet sister, aged fifteen when the novel begins. She is repeatedly described as frivolous and headstrong. Her main activity in life is socialising, especially flirting with the military officers stationed in the nearby town of Meryton. She dominates her older sister Kitty and is supported in the family by her mother. After she elopes with Wickham and he is paid to marry her, she shows no remorse for the embarrassment that her actions caused for her family, but acts as if she has made a wonderful match of which her sisters should be jealous.
- Charles Bingley is a young gentleman without an estate. His wealth was recent, and he is seeking a permanent home. He rents the Netherfield estate near Longbourn when the novel opens. Twenty-two years old at the start of the novel, handsome, good-natured, and wealthy, he is contrasted with his friend Darcy as being less intelligent but kinder and more charming and hence more popular in Meryton. He lacks resolve and is easily influenced by others.
- Caroline Bingley is the snobbish sister of Charles Bingley. Clearly harbouring romantic intentions on Darcy herself, she views his growing attachment to Elizabeth Bennet with some jealousy, resulting in disdain and frequent verbal attempts to undermine Elizabeth and her society.
- George Wickham is an old acquaintance of Darcy from childhood, and an officer in the militia unit stationed near Meryton. Superficially charming, he rapidly forms a friendship with Elizabeth Bennet, prompting remarks upon his suitability as a potential husband. He spreads numerous tales about the wrongs Darcy has done to him, colouring the popular perception of the other man in local society. It is eventually revealed that these tales are distortions, and that Darcy was the wronged man in their acquaintance.
- William Collins, aged twenty-five, is Mr Bennet's clergyman cousin and, as Mr Bennet has no son, heir to his estate. Austen described him as "not a sensible man, and the deficiency of nature had been but little assisted by education or society." Collins boasts of his acquaintance with and advantageous patronage from Lady Catherine de Bourgh. Mr Bennet, Jane, and Elizabeth consider him pompous and lacking in common sense. Elizabeth's rejection of Collins' marriage proposal is welcomed by her father, regardless of the financial benefit to the family of such a match. Elizabeth is later somewhat distressed, although understanding, when her closest friend, Charlotte Lucas, consents to marry Collins out of her need for a settled position and to avoid the low status and lack of autonomy of an old maid.
- Lady Catherine de Bourgh, who possesses wealth and social standing, is haughty, domineering and condescending. Mr Collins, among others, enables these characteristics by deferring to her opinions and desires. Elizabeth, however, is duly respectful but not intimidated. Darcy, whilst respectful of their shared family connection, is offended by her lack of manners, especially towards Elizabeth, and later, when pressed by her demand that he not marry Elizabeth, is quick to assert his intentions to marry whom he wishes.
- Aunt and Uncle Gardiner: he is Mrs Bennet's brother, and a successful businessman in London—quite sensible and gentleman-like. His wife is close with—a mentor to—both Elizabeth and Jane, and she proves vital in assisting Elizabeth and in interpreting Darcy. Jane stays with the Gardiners in London for a while, and Elizabeth travels with them to Derbyshire, where she again meets Darcy. They both support the Bennets by trying to help Lydia when she elopes with Wickham.
- Georgiana Darcy is Mr Darcy's quiet and amiable younger sister, aged sixteen when the story begins. In a letter to Elizabeth, Darcy describes events of the previous year, when Wickham tried to persuade Georgiana to elope with him, so that he could inherit her £30,000. Later, Elizabeth meets her at Pemberley, where she is amiable and sweet. She is very happy with her brother's choosing of Elizabeth and maintains a close relationship with them both.
Many critics take the novel's title as a starting point when analysing the major themes of Pride and Prejudice; however, Robert Fox cautions against reading too much into the title since commercial factors may have played a role in its selection. "After the success of Sense and Sensibility, nothing would have seemed more natural than to bring out another novel of the same author using again the formula of antithesis and alliteration for the title. It should be pointed out that the qualities of the title are not exclusively assigned to one or the other of the protagonists; both Elizabeth and Darcy display pride and prejudice."
A major theme in much of Austen's work is the importance of environment and upbringing on the development of young people's character and morality. Social standing and wealth are not necessarily advantages in her world, and a further theme common to Jane Austen's work is ineffectual parents. In Pride and Prejudice, the failure of Mr and Mrs Bennet (particularly the latter) as parents is blamed for Lydia's lack of moral judgment; Darcy, on the other hand, has been taught to be principled and scrupulously honourable, but is also proud and overbearing. Kitty, rescued from Lydia's bad influence and spending more time with her older sisters after they marry, is said to improve greatly in their superior society.
Pride and Prejudice, like most of Jane Austen's works, employs the narrative technique of free indirect speech. This has been defined as "the free representation of a character's speech, by which one means, not words actually spoken by a character, but the words that typify the character's thoughts, or the way the character would think or speak, if she thought or spoke". By using narrative which adopts the tone and vocabulary of a particular character (in this case, that of Elizabeth), Austen invites the reader to follow events from Elizabeth's viewpoint, sharing her prejudices and misapprehensions. "The learning curve, while undergone by both protagonists, is disclosed to us solely through Elizabeth's point of view and her free indirect speech is essential ... for it is through it that we remain caught, if not stuck, within Elizabeth's misprisions."
Austen began writing the novel after staying at Goodnestone Park in Kent with her brother Edward and his wife in 1796. The novel was originally titled First Impressions by Jane Austen, and was written between October 1796 and August 1797. On 1 November 1797 Austen's father sent a letter to London bookseller Thomas Cadell to ask if he had any interest in seeing the manuscript, but the offer was declined by return of post.
Austen made significant revisions to the manuscript for First Impressions between 1811 and 1812. She later renamed the story Pride and Prejudice. In renaming the novel, Austen probably had in mind the "sufferings and oppositions" summarized in the final chapter of Fanny Burney's Cecilia, called "Pride and Prejudice", where the phrase appears three times in block capitals. It is possible that the novel's original title was altered to avoid confusion with other works. In the years between the completion of First Impressions and its revision into Pride and Prejudice, two other works had been published under that name: a novel by Margaret Holford and a comedy by Horace Smith.
Austen sold the copyright for the novel to Thomas Egerton of Whitehall in exchange for £110 (Austen had asked for £150). This proved a costly decision. Austen had published Sense and Sensibility on a commission basis, whereby she indemnified the publisher against any losses and received any profits, less costs and the publisher's commission. Unaware that Sense and Sensibility would sell out its edition, making her £140, she passed the copyright to Egerton for a one-off payment, meaning that all the risk (and all the profits) would be his. Jan Fergus has calculated that Egerton subsequently made around £450 from just the first two editions of the book.
Egerton published the first edition of Pride and Prejudice in three hardcover volumes in January 1813, priced at 18s. Favourable reviews saw this edition sold out, with a second edition published in November that year. A third edition was published in 1817.
Foreign language translations first appeared in 1813 in French; subsequent translations were published in German, Danish and Swedish. Pride and Prejudice was first published in the United States in August 1832 as Elizabeth Bennet or, Pride and Prejudice. The novel was also included in Richard Bentley's Standard Novel series in 1833. R. W. Chapman's scholarly edition of Pride and Prejudice, first published in 1923, has become the standard edition from which many modern publications of the novel are based.
The novel was well received, with three favourable reviews in the first months following publication. Jan Fergus calls it "her most popular novel, both with the public and with her family and friends", and quotes David Gilson's A Bibliography of Jane Austen (Clarendon, 1982), where it is stated that Pride and Prejudice was referred to as "the fashionable novel" by Anne Isabella Milbanke, later to be the wife of Lord Byron. However, others did not agree. Charlotte Brontë wrote to noted critic and reviewer George Henry Lewes after reading a review of his published in Fraser's Magazine in 1847. He had praised Jane Austen's work and declared that he, "... would rather have written Pride and Prejudice, or Tom Jones, than any of the Waverley Novels". Miss Brontë, though, found Pride and Prejudice a disappointment, "... a carefully fenced, highly cultivated garden, with neat borders and delicate flowers; but ... no open country, no fresh air, no blue hill, no bonny beck."
- In 2003 the BBC conducted the largest ever poll for the " UK's Best-Loved Book" in which Pride and Prejudice came second, behind The Lord of the Rings.
- In a 2008 survey of more than 15,000 Australian readers, Pride and Prejudice came first in a list of the 101 best books ever written.
Film, television, and theatre
Pride and Prejudice has engendered numerous adaptations. Some of the notable film versions include that of 1940 starring Greer Garson and Laurence Olivier, and that of 2005 starring Keira Knightley (in an Oscar-nominated performance) and Matthew Macfadyen. Notable television versions include two by the BBC: the popular 1995 version starring Jennifer Ehle and Colin Firth, and a 1980 version starring Elizabeth Garvie and David Rintoul. A 1936 stage version was created by Helen Jerome played at the St. James's Theatre in London, starring Celia Johnson and Hugh Williams. First Impressions was a 1959 Broadway musical version starring Polly Bergen, Farley Granger, and Hermione Gingold. In 1995, a musical concept album was written by Bernard J. Taylor, with Peter Karrie in the role of Mr Darcy and Claire Moore in the role of Elizabeth Bennet. A new stage production, Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, The New Musical, was presented in concert on 21 October 2008 in Rochester, New York with Colin Donnell as Darcy.
Bride and Prejudice, starring Aishwarya Rai, is a Bollywood adaptation of the novel; while Pride & Prejudice: A Latter-Day Comedy (2003), starring Kam Heskin and Orlando Seale, places the novel at a Mormon university in modern times. Bridget Jones's Diary is a loose adaptation of the novel in a modern setting, starring Renee Zellweger as a modern-day Elizabeth, and Colin Firth once again as Mr Darcy. The off-Broadway musical I Love You Because reverses the gender of the main roles, set in modern day New York City. The Japanese comic Hana Yori Dango by Yoko Kamio, in which the wealthy, arrogant and proud protagonist, Doumyouji Tsukasa, falls in love with a poor, lower-class girl named Makino Tsukushi, is loosely based on Pride and Prejudice. A 2008 Israeli television six-part miniseries set the story in the Galilee with Mr Darcy a well-paid worker in the high-tech industry.
Pride and Prejudice has also crossed into the science fiction and horror genres. In the 1997 episode of science fiction comedy Red Dwarf entitled " Beyond a Joke", the crew of the space ship relax in a virtual reality rendition of "Pride and Prejudice Land" in "Jane Austen World". The central premise of the television miniseries Lost in Austen is a modern woman suddenly swapping lives with that of Elizabeth Bennet. In February 2009, it was announced that Elton John's Rocket Pictures production company was making a film, Pride and Predator, based on the story, but with the added twist of an alien landing in Longbourne.
The novel has inspired a number of other works that are not direct adaptations. Books inspired by Pride and Prejudice include: Mr. Darcy's Daughters and The Exploits and Adventures of Miss Alethea Darcy by Elizabeth Aston; Pemberley: Or Pride and Prejudice Continued and An Unequal Marriage: Or Pride and Prejudice Twenty Years Later by Emma Tennant; The Book of Ruth ( ASIN B00262ZRBM) by Helen Baker; Jane Austen Ruined My Life and Mr. Darcy Broke My Heart by Beth Pattillo; Precipitation - A Continuation of Miss Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice by Helen Baker; Searching for Pemberley by Mary Simonsen and Mr. Darcy Takes a Wife and its sequel Darcy & Elizabeth: Nights and Days at Pemberly by Linda Berdoll.
In Gwyn Cready's comedic romance novel, Seducing Mr. Darcy, the heroine lands in Pride and Prejudice by way of magic massage, has a fling with Darcy and unknowingly changes the rest of the story.
Bridget Jones's Diary by Helen Fielding, which started as a newspaper column before becoming a novel and a film, was inspired by the then-current BBC adaptation; both works share a Mr. Darcy of serious disposition (both played by Colin Firth), a foolish match-making mother, and a detached affectionate father, as well as the protagonist overhearing Mr. Darcy speaking about her disparagingly, followed by the caddish character gaining the protagonist's affections by telling lies about Mr. Darcy. The self-referential in-jokes continue with the sequel, Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason.
In March 2009, Quirk Books released Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, which takes Austen's actual, original work, and mashes it up with zombie hordes, cannibalism, ninjas, and ultra-violent mayhem. In March 2010, Quirk Books published a prequel which deals with Elizabeth Bennett's early days as a zombie hunter, entitled Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls.
The classic has likewise seen a cleverly sexed-up and satiric reinterpretation via the 2011 novel Pride and Prejudice: Hidden Lusts by author Mitzi Szereto. Based on the original work, it expands the storyline with the same social observation and wit seen in Austen, but giving the characters a dimension Austen would not have been allowed to explore when she wrote the novel.
Marvel has also published their take on this classic, releasing a short comic series of five issues that stays true to the original storyline. The first issue was published on 1 April 2009 and was written by Nancy Hajeski.
Pamela Aidan is the author of a trilogy of books telling the story of Pride and Prejudice from Mr. Darcy's point of view entitled Fitzwilliam Darcy, Gentleman. The books are An Assemby Such as This, Duty and Desire and These Three Remain.
The six-part BBC comedy series Blackadder the Third (1987), set vaguely in the late 18th-early 19th centuries, cleverly parodies the double titles Sense and Sensibility and Pride and Prejudice in the titles of its episodes: "Dish and Dishonesty," "Ink and Incapability," "Nob and Nobility," "Sense and Senility," "Amy and Amiability," and "Duel and Duality."